Résumé : The acute motor effects elicited by drugs acting upon adenosine A(2A) receptors, namely the highly selective agonist CGS 21680 or the antagonists SCH 58261 and ZM 241385, were investigated in mice. CGS 21680 dose-dependently (0.1-2.5 mg/kg i.p.) decreased horizontal and vertical motor activities. The depressant effect of CGS 21680 (0. 5 mg/kg i.p.) was maintained in mice pretreated by the adenosine receptor antagonist 8-(p-sulfophenyl)-theophylline (10-30 mg/kg i.p. ), which poorly penetrates the blood-brain barrier, but was completely lost in adenosine A(2A) receptor knockout mice. Thus, the adenosine A(2A) receptor is critically involved in motor activity. SCH 58261 (1-10 mg/kg i.p.) increased locomotion and rearing with a quick onset, but for a shorter period in mice habituated to the environment than in mice unfamiliar to it. ZM 241385 (7.5-60 mg/kg i. p.) stimulated horizontal and vertical activities with a slow onset at the two highest tested doses, similarly in naive and in habituated mice. The increase in locomotion elicited by ZM 241385 (15-30 mg/kg i.p. and 10-20 nM i.c.v.) was retained in mice treated by CGS 21680 (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) but that elicited by SCH 58261 (1-3-10 mg/kg i.p. and 10-20 nM i.c.v.) partially subsided. In conclusion, both 'striatal-like'/'SCH 58261-sensitive' adenosine A(2A) receptors and 'ZM 241385-sensitive'/'atypical' CGS 21680 binding sites may mediate CGS 21680-induced motor effects. Moreover, our results suggest that 'atypical' CGS 21680 binding sites could be adenosine A(2A) receptors with a peculiar pharmacological profile.