Résumé : Data on the axonal projections of enteric neurones in the human intestine are still scarce. The present study aimed to identify the morphology and neurochemical coding of enteric neurones in the human small intestine, which are involved in the innervation of the mucosa. The lipophilic neuronal tracer DiI was applied to one mucosal villus of small intestinal resection specimens. The tissue was kept in organotypic culture and subsequently processed for immunohistochemistry. Neurones labelled from the mucosa were located in all ganglionated nerve networks, including the myenteric plexus. In all plexuses, at least five neurochemical types of neurones could be observed, i.e. SOM-IR neurones, SP-IR neurones, SOM/SP-IR neurones, VIP-IR neurones and neurones lacking immunoreactivity for any of these markers. Most of the DiI-labelled neurones were multidendritic; a minority of neurones could be identified as Dogiel type II cells, suggesting the existence of a subgroup of primary afferent neurones in the DiI-filled cell population. The ratio of labelled multidendritic neurones (assumed to be secretomotor) to labelled Dogiel type II neurones (assumed to be primary afferent) in the myenteric plexus is higher in large mammals (pig and human) than in small mammals (guinea pig). This might point to the existence of a different topographical distribution of subsets of primary afferent neurones and/or topographically distinct intrinsic mucosal reflex circuits in large mammals, including humans.