Résumé : PURPOSE: Gemcitabine is a promising adjuvant treatment for patients with resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma and its use in combination with radiotherapy is under exploration. Human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) and human concentrative nucleoside transporter (hCNT) 1 and 3 are the major transporters responsible for 2',2'-difluoro-2-deoxycytidine (gemcitabine) uptake into cells. The aim of this study was to determine patients' outcome according to the expression of hENT1 and hCNT3 in tumoral cells after postoperative gemcitabine-based chemoradiation regimen. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We studied tumor blocks from 45 pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients treated with gemcitabine-based chemoradiation after curative resection and assessed hENT1 and hCNT3 expression using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: When adjusted for the effects of lymph node ratio and tumor diameter, patients with high hENT1 expression had significantly longer disease-free survival and overall survival (OS) than patients with low expression, whereas high hCNT3 expression was only associated with longer OS. In a combined analysis, patients with two favorable prognostic factors (hENT1(high)/hCNT3(high) expression) had a longer survival (median OS, 94.8 months) than those having one (median OS, 18.7 months) or no (median OS, 12.2 months) favorable prognostic factor. CONCLUSIONS: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients with a high expression of hENT1 and hCNT3 immunostaining have a significantly longer survival after adjuvant gemcitabine-based chemoradiation. These biomarkers deserve prospective evaluation in patients receiving gemcitabine-based adjuvant therapy.