Résumé : BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to enhance selectively the immunostimulatory properties of tumor cells. Based on their oncotropic properties, we used autonomous recombinant parvoviruses to transduce the genes coding for the constimulatory molecules CD80 (B7-1) or CD86 (B7-2) specifically into tumor cells without transducing normal cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After infection of tumor cells by these viruses, surface expression of CD80 and CD86 molecules was assessed by FACS and enhancement of immunostimulatory properties was assessed in alloreactions with G-10 purified T cells. RESULTS: Infection of normal and transformed cells with recombinant MVM- B7-1 or B7-2 viruses leads to expression of costimulatory molecules only by tumor cells and confers on them the capacity to sensitize naive T cells in vitro. CONCLUSION: This approach should ultimately lead to selective expression of costimulatory molecules in tumor tissues in vivo without affecting normal cells.