Résumé : The pathobiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is not understood completely. Recent observations in patients with PAH and in knockout models have raised the idea that a defect in vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) may be involved in PAH physiopathology. Therefore, we investigated the expressions of VIP, the related pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), and their receptors (VPAC1, VPAC2, and PAC1) in piglets with overcirculation-induced pulmonary hypertension as an early-stage PAH model. Seventeen piglets were randomized to an anastomosis between the innominate and the main pulmonary artery, or to a sham operation. After 3 mo, a hemodynamic evaluation was performed and the lung tissue was sampled for biologic and histologic studies. The shunting increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) by 100% and arteriolar medial thickness by 85%. VIP and VPAC1 gene expressions were decreased and increased, respectively. VPAC1 gene expression was positively correlated to PVR. VPAC2 and PAC1 immunoreactivity was seen in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle. VIP and PACAP immunostaining was observed in nerve fibers surrounding the pulmonary arterial smooth muscle. In conclusion, overcirculation-induced pulmonary hypertension is accompanied by a down-regulation of VIP signaling, without change in PACAP expression. These results are consistent with the notion that abnormal VIP signaling takes part in PAH pathogenesis.