Résumé : Extracellular nucleotides regulate ion transport, mucociliary clearance as well as inflammatory properties of the airway epithelium by acting on P2 receptors. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a key enzyme involved in the synthesis of prostaglandins during inflammation. In this study, using calcium imaging, DNA microarray experiments, real-time Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) measurement, we show for the first time that ATP, UTP or INS365 compound (P2Y2 receptor agonists) up-regulate COX-2 expression by approximately 3-fold and enhance the release of PGE2 in human A549 airway epithelial cells. Our data suggest that P2Y receptors may represent putative targets in airway inflammatory diseases.