par Guissard, Nathalie ;Duchateau, Jacques ;Hainaut, Karl
Référence Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 24, 11, page (1257-1263)
Publication Publié, 1992
Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : The effect of decreased front block obliquity on start velocity was studied during sprint starts. The electromyographic (EMG) activity of the medial gastrocnemius (MG), the soleus (Sol), and the vastus medialis (VM) was recorded and analyzed at a 70 degrees, a 50 degrees, and a 30 degrees angle between the foot plate surface and the horizontal. Integrated EMGs (IEMG) were compared with muscle length changes in the MG and Sol in relation to foot and knee movements. The results indicate that decreasing front block obliquity significantly (P < 0.05) increases the start velocity without any change to the total duration of the pushing phase and the overall EMG activity. This improvement in sprint start performance is associated with the enhanced contribution of the MG during eccentric and concentric phases of calf muscles contraction. In the "set position" the initial length of MG and Sol is increased at 50 degrees and 30 degrees as compared with 70 degrees. The subsequent stretch-shortening cycle is improved and contributes more effectively to the speed of the muscle shortening. Moreover, lengthening these muscles during the eccentric phase stretches the muscle spindles, and the reflex activities that contribute to the observed increase in the MG IEMG, are present when the slope of the block is reduced. The results indicate that decreasing front block obliquity induces neural and mechanical modifications that contribute to increasing the sprint start velocity without any increase in the duration of the pushing phase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)