Résumé : Introduction. In recent decades, Madagascar has become one of the most important plant hotspots in the world. The country’s remaining forests and vegetation are disappearing at an alarming rate, while dozens of new species are discovered each year. Amongst the plant families that have long been studied, Orchidaceae appear as one of the most charismatic, diverse and of high conservation concern. Based on a reviewed, comprehensive herbarium dataset, we have compiled a curated checklist of all orchid species occurring in Madagascar. Based on this complete dataset, we then compiled sampling effort, species diversity distribution and some general statistics on their ecology and IUCN conservation status. Methods. We compiled and standardised a global dataset using five public databases as the main data sources, supplemented by the most recent publications. The database contains ~ 10,000 geolocated records collected between 1816 and 2021. We used GIS software and rarefaction methods to examine sampling and diversity patterns. Results. According to our dataset, there are currently 913 orchid species collected in Madagascar, of which 759 orchid species (83.1%) are endemic. Doubling the sampling effort could lead to the discovery of around 100 more species, bringing the total estimated number of orchid species in Madagascar to between 986 and 1048. About one-third (297 species) of all orchid species are known only by type specimens (189 species) or have not been collected in Madagascar for more than 50 years (214 species). Although the raw data show that the Andasibe-Moramanga area would have the highest orchid species concentration, our analysis of the data, adjusted for bias, shows that the centres of orchid diversity in Madagascar are in the Tsaratanàna Strict Nature Reserve and the Ranomafana National Park. Life-form statistics show that 55.0% of orchid species are strict epiphytes. The main flowering period of orchids in Madagascar is between November and March. To date, 84% of the 226 Malagasy orchid species listed in the IUCN Red List are threatened with extinction (CR, EN or VU). Conclusion. Despite geographically uneven coverage, the biodiversity of Malagasy orchids appears to be already well documented. We provide maps corrected for sampling bias that indicate priority areas for future surveys. Upcoming efforts should also focus on rediscovery and conservation of rare and/or threatened species and ensure that the protected area network is well aligned with the distribution of priority species for conservation. Finally, the conservation status of 75% of the orchid species found in Madagascar is not yet known and the inclusion of these species must be a top priority in the coming years.