Résumé : The high strain diversity of Streptococcus pyogenes serves as a major obstacle to vaccine development against this leading global pathogen. We did a systematic review of studies in PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase that reported the global distribution of S pyogenes emm-types and emm-clusters from Jan 1, 1990, to Feb 23, 2023. 212 datasets were included from 55 countries, encompassing 74 468 bacterial isolates belonging to 211 emm-types. Globally, an inverse correlation was observed between strain diversity and the UNDP Human Development Index (HDI; r=−0·72; p<0·0001), which remained consistent upon subanalysis by global region and site of infection. Greater strain diversity was associated with a lower HDI, suggesting the role of social determinants in diseases caused by S pyogenes. We used a population-weighted analysis to adjust for the disproportionate number of epidemiological studies from high-income countries and identified 15 key representative isolates as vaccine targets. Strong strain type associations were observed between the site of infection (invasive, skin, and throat) and several streptococcal lineages. In conclusion, the development of a truly global vaccine to reduce the immense burden of diseases caused by S pyogenes should consider the multidimensional diversity of the pathogen, including its social and environmental context, and not merely its geographical distribution.