Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : Introduction: Research with transgender and gender-diverse (TGD) young people is essential to understand their experiences and to be able to propose, implement and adapt ‘services’ in the broadest sense to meet their needs. However, research outside clinical settings on current experiences and needs of youth under the age of 18 is limited which hinders the development of knowledge on TGD, as well as the development of research informed support practices. Acquiring parental consent for participatory research may present ethical and logistical difficulties, as it could jeopardize the safety, well-being, or confidentiality of adolescent participants. This creates a tension between the adolescent’s right to autonomy, privacy, freedom, and all aspects related to the consent of the underage on the one hand, and the parents’ right to protect their child on the other hand. This review aims to identify the methodological and ethical challenges associated with participatory research with transgender and gender-diverse young people. Methods: We systematically searched bibliometric databases for studies published between 2006 and 2022 and included 4 main conceptual groups: transgender and gender non-conforming, adolescence, qualitative research (including participatory research) and consent. This review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42022368360) in November 2022. Results: Of the 3,794 articles initially identified, 291 met the inclusion criteria and 48 were examined. The selected studies were analyzed in the light of four main ethical tensions: involving parents or a trusted person in the consent gathering process, ensuring the protection and safety of young people while respecting confidentiality, and ensuring that spaces are created for transgender and gender-diverse young people to express themselves freely as part of an empowering research process. At the same time, several methodological challenges concerning public and stakeholder participation and recruitment, data collection and analysis as well as research integrity emerged from the selected studies. Conclusion & implications: The existing literature of participatory research involving young transgender and gender-diverse individuals underscores the intricate and conflicting aspects, especially concerning power dynamics, empowerment, and the researcher’s role. The relevance of these findings extends across various legal frameworks and is applicable to multiple contexts and countries