Résumé : Pollution is harmful to human physical health and wellbeing. What is less well established is the relationship between adolescent mental health - a growing public health concern - and pollution. In response, we systematically reviewed studies documenting associations between pollution and mental health in adolescents. We searched Africa Wide, Medline, PsycArticles, PsycInfo, PubMed, CINAHL, ERIC, SciELO, Scopus, and Web of Science Core Collection for studies published up to 10 April 2020 that investigated exposure to any pollutant and symptoms of anxiety; depression; disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorders; neurodevelopmental disorders; psychosis; or substance abuse in 10-24-year-olds (i.e., adolescents as per expanded and more inclusive definition of adolescence). This identified 2291 records and we assessed 128 papers for inclusion. We used a narrative synthesis to coalesce the studies' findings. This review is registered on PROSPERO, CRD42020176664. Seventeen studies from Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and North America were included. Air and water pollution exposure was associated with elevated symptoms of depression, generalised anxiety, psychosis, and/or disruptive, impulse control and conduct disorder. Exposure to lead and solvents was associated with neurodevelopmental impairments. Most studies neglected factors that could have supported the mental health resilience of adolescents exposed to pollution. Notwithstanding the limited quality of most reviewed studies, results suggest that pollution exposure is a risk to adolescent mental health. High-quality research is urgently required, including the factors and processes that protect the mental health of pollution-exposed adolescents. Studies with adolescents living in low- and lower middle-income countries and the southern hemisphere must be prioritized.