Résumé : Abstract Objectives Anti-carbamylated protein antibodies (anti-CarPAs) are present in RA sera and have been associated with erosive disease. The exact targets of anti-CarPAs in vivo are currently not well known; we used a proteomic approach on serum and SF of RA patients to assess the human carbamylome and to identify carbamylated autoantigens as potential biomarkers in early RA. Methods Mass spectrometry was performed on SF and serum from RA patients. Carbamylated proteins present in both sample types were selected as candidate autoantigens for the establishment of ELISAs. A cohort of early RA patients was tested for positivity for specific anti-CarPAs. Results Eleven novel carbamylated proteins were identified, and five were selected as potential autoantigens for detection of anti-CarPAs. Among them, antibodies against carbamylated hemopexin (anti-CaHPX) and alpha-2-macroglobulin (anti-CaA2M) showed comparable diagnostic value to the established carbamylated foetal calf serum–based ELISA. A cohort of 189 early RA patients was studied. The combination of these new biomarkers with anti-citrullinated protein antibodies and RF identified 89% of early RA patients in our cohort. There was little correlation between the tested biomarkers, and each one of the tested antigens could identify a different subset of seronegative RA patients. Anti-CaA2M positivity showed clinical potential, being associated with higher disease disability. Conclusion We highlight the detection of novel carbamylated autoantigens in vivo using a combined proteomics approach in the SF and serum of RA patients. Anti-CaHPX and anti-CaA2M are promising clinical biomarkers, especially in seronegative RA.