Résumé : Ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) with adequate quality protein is used to treat children with oedematous and non-oedematous severe acute malnutrition (SAM). The plasma amino acid (AA) profile reflects the protein nutritional status; hence, its assessment during SAM treatment is useful in evaluating AA delivery from RUTFs. The objective was to evaluate the plasma AAs during the treatment of oedematous and non-oedematous SAM in community-based management of acute malnutrition (CMAM) using amino acid-enriched plant-based RUTFs with 10% milk (MSMS-RUTF) or without milk (FSMS-RUTF) compared to peanut milk RUTF (PM-RUTF). Plasma AA was measured in a non-blinded, 3-arm, parallel-group, simple randomized controlled trial conducted in Malawi. The RUTFs used for SAM were FSMS-RUTF, MSMS-RUTF or PM-RUTF. A non-inferiority hypothesis was tested to compare plasma AA levels from patients treated with FSMS-RUTF or MSMS-RUTF with those from patients treated with PM-RUTF at discharge. For both types of SAM, FSMS-RUTF and MSMS-RUTF treatments were non-inferior to the PM-RUTF treatment in restoration of the EAA and cystine except that for FSMS-RUTF, methionine and tryptophan partially satisfied the non-inferiority criteria in the oedematous group. Amino-acid-enriched milk-free plant-source-protein RUTF has the potential to restore all the EAA, but it is possible that enrichment with amino acids may require more methionine and tryptophan for oedematous children.