Résumé : Malaria remains one of the leading causes of death in sub-Saharan Africa, ranked in the top three infectious diseases in the world. Plants of the Eriosema genus have been reported to be used for the treatment of this disease, but scientific evidence is still missing for some of them. In the present study, the in vitro antiplasmodial activity of the crude extract and compounds from Eriosema montanum Baker f. roots were tested against the 3D7 strain of Plasmodium falciparum and revealed using the SYBR Green, a DNA intercalating compound. The cytotoxicity effect of the compounds on a human cancer cell line (THP-1) was assessed to determine their selectivity index. It was found that the crude extract of the plant displayed a significant antiplasmodial activity with an IC50 (µg/mL) = 17.68 ± 4.030 and a cytotoxic activity with a CC50 (µg/mL) = 101.5 ± 12.6, corresponding to a selective antiplasmodial activity of 5.7. Bioactivity-guided isolation of the major compounds of the roots' crude extract afforded seven compounds, including genistein, genistin and eucomic acid. Under our experimental conditions, using Artemisinin as a positive control, eucomic acid showed the best inhibitory activity against the P. falciparum 3D7, a well-known chloroquine-sensitive strain. The present results provide a referential basis to support the traditional use of Eriosema species in the treatment of malaria.