Résumé : Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), which contributes to the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Renal IRI combines major events, including a strong inflammatory immune response leading to extensive cell injuries, necrosis and late interstitial fibrosis. Macrophages act as key players in IRI-induced AKI by polarizing into proinflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 phenotypes. Compelling evidence exists that the stress-responsive enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), mediates protection against renal IRI and modulates macrophage polarization by enhancing a M2 subset. Hereafter, we review the dual effect of macrophages in the pathogenesis of IRI-induced AKI and discuss the critical role of HO-1 expressing macrophages.