Résumé : This chapter presents the historical aspects regarding swimming in rivers in the Paris region since the seventeenth century, including the concept of fecal contamination indicator bacteria (FIBs) developed at the very beginning of the twentieth century, and historical contamination data covering more than one century in the Paris agglomeration. The sources of microbiological contamination of river waters are quantified, showing the importance of rain events. The present contamination levels are presented with reference to the European Directive for bathing water quality. FIB levels show that the sufficient quality for bathing is not reached yet in any of the monitored stations. A comprehensive data set regarding waterborne pathogens (viruses, Giardia, Cryptosporidium) in the Seine and Marne rivers is presented as a necessary complement to the regulatory FIB data to better evaluate health risks. The last section concludes on the actions to be conducted to improve the rivers’ microbiological quality in the coming years.