Résumé : Abstract The Mtq2-Trm112 methyltransferase modifies the eukaryotic translation termination factor eRF1 on the glutamine side chain of a universally conserved GGQ motif that is essential for release of newly synthesized peptides. Although this modification is found in the three domains of life, its exact role in eukaryotes remains unknown. As the deletion of MTQ2 leads to severe growth impairment in yeast, we have investigated its role further and tested its putative involvement in ribosome biogenesis. We found that Mtq2 is associated with nuclear 60S subunit precursors, and we demonstrate that its catalytic activity is required for nucleolar release of pre-60S and for efficient production of mature 5.8S and 25S rRNAs. Thus, we identify Mtq2 as a novel ribosome assembly factor important for large ribosomal subunit formation. We propose that Mtq2-Trm112 might modify eRF1 in the nucleus as part of a quality control mechanism aimed at proof-reading the peptidyl transferase center, where it will subsequently bind during translation termination.