Résumé : Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) belong to a heterogeneous class of organic compounds blacklisted by the Stockholm Convention in 2009 due to their harmful impact on human health. Among OCPs, β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) is one of the most widespread and, at the same time, poorly studied environmental contaminant. Due to its physicochemical properties, β-HCH is the most hazardous of all HCH isomers; therefore, clarifying the mechanisms underlying its molecular action could provide further elements to draw the biochemical profile of this OCP. For this purpose, LNCaP and HepG2 cell lines were used as models and were subjected to immunoblot, immunofluorescence, and RT-qPCR analysis to follow the expression and mRNA levels, together with the distribution, of key biomolecules involved in the intracellular responses to β-HCH. In parallel, variations in redox homeostasis and cellular bioenergetic profile were monitored to have a complete overview of β-HCH effects. Obtained results strongly support the hypothesis that β-HCH could be an endocrine disrupting chemical as well as an activator of AhR signaling, promoting the establishment of an oxidative stress condition and a cellular metabolic shift toward aerobic glycolysis. In this altered context, β-HCH can also induce DNA damage through H2AX phosphorylation, demonstrating its multifaceted mechanisms of action.