par Mitoma, Hiroshi;Manto, Mario ;Hampe, Christiane Susanne
Référence Cerebellum & ataxias, 4, 1, 16
Publication Publié, 2017-09
Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : The cerebellum is a vulnerable target of autoimmunity in the CNS. The category of immune-mediated cerebellar ataxias (IMCAs) was recently established, and includes in particular paraneoplastic cerebellar degenerations (PCDs), gluten ataxia (GA) and anti-GAD65 antibody (Ab) associated-CA, all characterized by the presence of autoantibodies. The significance of onconeuronal autoantibodies remains uncertain in some cases. The pathogenic role of anti-GAD65Ab has been established both in vitro and in vivo, but a consensus has not been reached yet. Recent studies of anti-GAD65 Ab-associated CA have clarified that (1) autoantibodies are generally polyclonal and elicit pathogenic effects related to epitope specificity, and (2) the clinical course can be divided into two phases: a phase of functional disorder followed by cell death. These features provide the rationale for prompt diagnosis and therapeutic strategies. The concept "Time is brain" has been completely underestimated in the field of immune ataxias. We now put forward the concept "Time is cerebellum" to underline the importance of very early therapeutic strategies in order to prevent or stop the loss of neurons and synapses. The diagnosis of IMCAs should depend not only on Ab testing, but rather on a rapid and comprehensive assessment of the clinical/immune profile. Treatment should be applied during the period of preserved cerebellar reserve, and should encompass early removal of the conditions (such as remote primary tumors) or diseases that trigger the autoimmunity, followed by the combinations of various immunotherapies.