Résumé : The development of cervical cancer depends on high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) persistent infection in the cervix. The transformation process leading to invasive cancer can take many years even decades and provides ample opportunity to detect, prevent and cure true precursor lesions. Although cervical cancer is widely preventable, it is the fourth most common cancer among women throughout the world, being a real public health issue, especially in developing countries, as 85 % of deaths occur in low and middle-income countries. The situation in Bolivia is particularly alarming, as the cervical cancer incidence is around 38.5 per 100,000 women, which is estimated to be the highest incidence in Latin America. Prevention of cervical cancer in Bolivia is mainly based on the cytological examination of a Papanicolaou smear (Pap) and more recently on visual inspection after application of acetic acid (VIA). However, many economic, sociocultural, and geographic barriers impair this prevention program being successful, as reflected by the low coverage obtained with these screening tests.In order to reduce the cervical cancer incidence and mortality in the department of Cochabamba in Bolivia, we aimed to assess a low-cost HPV test applicable on self-samples. We believe that this strategy could improve the poor screening programs developed in our country. An evaluation was first made to knowledge of Bolivian women about human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. As expected, Bolivian women, from rural, peri-urban and urban areas, knew little or nothing about those. Secondly, their degree of acceptability and confidence towards HPV self-sampling was assessed. Most of the women found self-sampling easier to perform (86.9 % to 93.2 %) and more comfortable (79.4 % to 83.3 %) compared to physician sampling. However, accuracy to detect cervical pre-cancer was higher in their point of view when it was performed on specimens taken by a physician (35.1% to 63.5%). Accordingly, the campaign of vaginal HPV self-sampling in a peri-urban area increased screening coverage, reaching in three months the annual rate average. Finally, the determination of accuracy to detect preneoplastic lesions was assessed for three screening methods, in 469 women, divided in two groups. The first group included 362 women that underwent three consecutively primary screening tests: self-collected sampling for HR-HPV detection, conventional cervical cytology and visual inspection under acetic acid (VIA). The second group included 107 women referred with a positive HR-HPV test that underwent were triage by conventional cervical cytology and VIA. The presence of high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia or invasive cancer (CIN 2+) was verified by colposcopy and biopsy.Among primary screening tests, the sensitivity of the HR-HPV test to detect CIN 2+ lesions was the highest (76 %). In HR-HPV positive women, the sensitivity of the VIA and cytology to detect CIN 2+ lesions were 100% and 81%, respectively.In conclusion, the knowledge about cervical cancer and HPV infection is poor in Bolivia. Despite greater acceptance of the vaginal self-sampling in all areas, women kept greater confidence in the screening performed by the gynecologist, although HPV self-sampling improved coverage rate. Finally, HPV testing on self- samples was the most sensitive screening test and VIA was the most sensitive method for the triage.