Résumé : Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibition with the combination of BRAF (Rapidly Accelerated Fibrosarcoma) and MEK (Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase) inhibitors has become the standard of first-line therapy of metastatic melanoma harbouring BRAF V600 mutations. However, about half of the patients present with primary resistance while the remaining develop secondary resistance under prolonged treatment. Thus, there is a need for predictive biomarkers for sensitivity and/or resistance to further refine the patient population likely to benefit from MAPK inhibitors. In this study, we explored a top-down approach using a multiplex kinase assay, first, to discover a kinome signature predicting sensitivity, intrinsic and acquired resistance to MAPK inhibitors in melanoma, and second, to understand the mechanism of resistance using cell lines. Pre-dose tissues from patients (four responders and three non-responders to BRAFi monotherapy) were profiled for phosphotyrosine kinase (PTK) and serine-threonine kinase (STK) activities on a PamChip® peptide microarray in the presence and absence of ex vivo BRAFi. In addition, molecular studies were conducted on four sensitive parental lines, their offspring with acquired resistance to BRAFi and two lines with intrinsic resistance. PTK and STK activities in cell lysates were measured in the presence and absence of ex vivo BRAFi and/or MEKi. In tissue lysates, concentration-dependent ex vivo inhibition of STK and PTK activities with dabrafenib was stronger in responders than in non-responders. This difference was confirmed in cell lines comparing sensitive and resistant ones. Interestingly, common features of resistance were increased activity of receptor tyrosine kinases, Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src (Src) family kinases and protein kinase B (PKB, AKT) signalling. These latter results were confirmed by Western blots. While dabrafenib alone showed an inhibition of STK and PTK activities in both tissues and cell lines, the combination of dabrafenib and trametinib showed an antagonism on the STK activities and a synergism on PTK activities, resulting in stronger inhibitions of overall tyrosine kinase activities. Altogether; these data reveal that resistance of tumours and cell lines to MAPK inhibitors can be predicted using a multiplex kinase assay and is associated with an increase in specific tyrosine kinase activities and globally to AKT signalling in the patient's tissue. Thus, such a predictive kinome signature would help to identify patients with innate resistance to MAPK double inhibition in order to propose other therapies.