Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : The concept of oligometastatic disease was born in the 1990s in order to identify a subpopulation of metastatic patients who present with a low tumor burden (mainly due to a low number of metastases, usually less than 5), and a rather indolent disease. This entity has led to the development of new therapeutic approaches, which combine both systemic treatment and local ablative treatment of the primary tumor as well as the oligometastases (by surgery, stereotactic radiotherapy or interventional radiology). In the field of non-small cell lung cancer, this approach is based mainly upon two prospective trials but the level of evidence is still insufficient to consider it as a standard of care. Moreover, one of the major challenges of this approach is to identify, on clinical criteria as well as on biological signatures, the oligometastatic patients most likely to benefit from these aggressive therapeutic strategies, so as not to generate unnecessarily toxicities of local treatments that can alter the patient quality of life.