Résumé : Objective and design: The objective of the study is to uncover the influence of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) on the generation of Th17 lymphocytes in co-cultures of both BM-MSCs and T cells. Materials and methods: BM-MSCs, characterized according to the international society for cellular therapy (ISCT) criteria, were co-cultured with T cells isolated from peripheral blood. The expression levels of IL-17 receptor, RORγt and IL-23 receptor were evaluated using flow cytometry. The levels of cytokines involved in Th17 immunomodulation were measured using multiplex assay. Treatment: Inflammatory primed and non-primed BM-MSCs were co-cultured with either activated or non-activated T cells either at (1/80) and (1/5) ratio respectively. Results: MSC/T-cell ratio and inflammation significantly influenced the effect of BM-MSCs on the generation of Th17 lymphocytes. Cocultures of either primed or non-primed BM-MSCs with activated T cells significantly induced IL-17A-expressing lymphocytes. Interestingly, the expression of the transcription factor RORγt was significantly increased when compared to levels in activated T cells. Finally, both cell ratio and priming of BM-MSCs with cytokines substantially influenced the cytokine profile of BM-MSCs and T cells. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that BM-MSCs significantly modulate the Th17 lymphocyte pathway in a complex manner.