Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : Brachypodium hybridum (Poaceae) is widely distributed in the dry environments in Mediterranean basin, due to its high tolerance to drought. Investigating the natural variation of B. hybridum in response to environmental stresses is crucial for unraveling the genetic network of its stress tolerance. 79 B. hybridum lines from eight Tunisian populations were screened for their performance to low P availability using morpho-physiological parameters. ANOVA showed that treatment and population*treatment factors were the most contributors in the explained variance for the majority of parameters. A considerable population differentiation was detected in control and under P level (Qst = 0.77 vs Qst = 0.62). This suggests that B. hybridum exhibit an adaptive differential response to P deficiency related environmental conditions. Results revealed that Raouad and Sejnen lines were the most tolerant to P deficiency followed by Haouaria and Enfidha lines. The remaining populations were classified as sensitive. This pattern suggests that coastal populations were more tolerant to P deficiency than the inland ones. A slightly higher heritability was evidenced under low P level for most of traits, indicating that the direct selection under P deficiency is more reliable than an indirect one under optimal P supply.