Résumé : The success of community-directed treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI) depends on active community participation. We conducted a case study nested in a cross-sectional study in the Binza Ozone Health Zone (ZS) in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, in order to investigate community's knowledges and perceptions of onchocerciasis and on all CDTI's aspects. We interviewed 106 people aged 20 and over, purposively selected, through eight individual interviews and 12 focus groups. Themes used for collecting data were drawn for the Health Belief Model and data were analyzed using a deductive thematic approach. The term onchocerciasis was unknown to participants who called it “Mbitiri”, the little black fly, in their local language. This disease is seen as curse put on the sufferer by a witch and perceived as a threat because of the “Mbitiri” bites. The afflicted participants were reluctant to seek treatment and preferred traditional practitioners or healers. CDTI is considered devastating because of adverse effects of ivermectin as well as inefficient after occurrence of deaths. This explains the low level of community adhesion and participation to this strategy. Recruitment procedures for community distributors are poorly understood and awareness and health education campaigns are either non-existent or rarely carried out. Nevertheless, the latter should be regularly done.