Résumé : For many years, the nasal route of administration as part of a therapeutic treatment has been used. This route of administration is easy to implement, especially due to its non-invasiveness the ease of administration that it affords for the patient. In addition, it is suitable for chronic treatment as well as for an emergency situation when the patient is unconscious. For instance, the administration of benzodiazepines, such as midazolam, may be done to stop convulsions in a patient.Traditionally, intranasal administration was mainly borrowed to target a local effect (e.g. treatment of a cold with a decongestant agent). Subsequently, its application for systemic delivery (e.g. treatment of migraine with triptans) was more and more frequently considered. However, the administration of a drug in the nasal cavities for systemic delivery still remains limited. Indeed, even if the intravenous route has several major limitations such as its invasiveness or the pain generated during administration, it remains more widely used than the intranasal route. This can be explained, on the one hand, by the knowledge that was relatively limited regarding the nasal delivery but also because of the unavailability of nasal devices allowing precise control of the nasal administration (i.e. accurate dose delivery, strong deposition in the nasal cavity, etc).Subsequently, the intranasal route has led to a third therapeutic targeting, namely, the “nose-to-brain pathway”. In that case, the nasal cavity was considered as an opportunity to access the central nervous system (CNS). Indeed, the nose-to-brain delivery allows reaching the brain while bypassing the blood-brain barrier which is known to be a major obstacle to the diffusion of drugs in the CNS. Moreover, the passage through the nasal cavity would allow the administration of sensitive molecules (e.g. biopharmaceuticals) while avoiding excessive enzymatic degradation.Therefore, the nose-to-brain pathway appears to be an attractive route for the delivery of unstable molecules, requiring an access to the brain to reach their site of action. In this context, the therapeutic target that has been selected was "cachexia". It is a complex metabolic syndrome associated with underlying illness and characterized by loss of muscle with or without loss of fat mass. It usually results in particular from undernutrition and a generalized inflammatory state in the patient. In order to treat this syndrome and to restore the appetite in these patients, the goal was to use ghrelin (GHRL) as a model drug. GHRL is a peptide hormone that exhibits, among other effects, an orexigenic action. This biopharmaceutical needs to reach its receptors, located in the hypothalamus, to exert its therapeutic effect.In this study, the goal was to develop a formulation that was able to protect GHRL during its nasal administration, while increasing its residence time to promote its diffusion through the nasal olfactory epithelium.In the first part of the project, GHRL was mainly characterized in terms of stability (e.g. temperature and pH), but also in terms of surface charge. These results allowed selecting the most suitable strategy of formulation as well as the optimal storage conditions. After these preformulation evaluations, it was decided to work on the development of a liquid formulation. The first formulation was based on micelles composed of lipids with polyethylene glycol "DSPE-PEG (1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N- [amino (polyethylene glycol) -2000] (ammonium salt)" as hydrophilic group. This type of pegylated lipids have already shown, in many scientific studies, interesting properties in the context of intranasal administration, especially in terms of mucopenetration. With a slight adaptation of the protocol found in the literature, it was possible to obtain micelles of an adequate size (~15 nm). The micelles produced also showed good ability to encapsulate GHRL with an encapsulation rate of 98%, but micelles of DSPE-PEG failed to increase the GHRL diffusion through epithelial layer. This step is essential in order to obtain high GHRL levels in the brain. The formulation containing DSPE-PEG micelles has thus been abandoned.Still in the goal of combining lipid excipients with hydrophilic polymer, another formulation strategy based on liposomes coated with chitosan has been considered. Since GHRL has a positive charge at physiological pH, anionic liposomes have been developed to get a high loading. Three types of liposomes have been produced: anionic, neutral and cationic. The objective was to evaluate the influence of the liposomes charge on GHRL encapsulation. By working with anionic liposomes, the loading could be 46% higher than that obtained from the cationic liposomes. In order to evaluate a potential relation between the amount of GHRL that was encapsulated in the liposomes and the amount of GHRL that could potentially be degraded in the presence of enzyme, the three types of liposomes were exposed to trypsin. Following enzyme exposure, anionic liposomes showed enzymatic protection 4 times higher than cationic liposomes. These anionic liposomes have also shown high GHRL protection in the presence of another enzyme with another mechanism of digestion, namely, carboxylesterase-1. Subsequently, isothermal titration calorimetry tests were performed to better understand the interaction mechanisms between GHRL and anionic liposomes. This technique showed that hydrophobic interactions between both compounds were predominant. The coating of anionic liposomes by chitosans was performed and confirmed by an increase of the mean diameter (+48 nm) and charge (+6 mV) as well as by the modification of the morphology of the liposomes. This coating of liposomes with chitosans was supposed to confer additional properties to the formulation such as mucoadhesion and permeation enhancement. These both effects can be obtained thanks to the positive charge of chitosans which allows adhering to the mucins of the mucus, on the one hand, and thanks to the opening of the epithelial tight junctions that enhances drug permeation, on the other hand. The chitosan coating allowed increasing the fixation of the liposomes to mucins by about twenty percent compared to uncoated liposomes. In addition, the "absorption promoter" effect of chitosans was confirmed on cells culture. Then, the formulation was introduced into two distinct nasal devices intended for the administration of liquid nasal sprays, namely, the VP3 device from Aptar Pharma and the SP270 device from Nemera. The aerosols produced by each device allowed generating droplets characterized by a mean diameter higher than 10µm, leading to potential satisfactory impaction onto the olfactory region instead of diffusion throughout posterior region of the nasal cavities. In the second part of the work, a dry formulation was produced by spray-drying from the liquid dispersion of coated liposomes. The objective was to increase the stability of GHRL during storage as well as to enhance its remanence and diffusion through the olfactory epithelium. The optimized parameters allowed producing a powder characterized by a mean diameter higher than 10 μm with an acceptable yield. The powder produced exhibited a low residual moisture and showed good homogeneity in terms of GHRL content. Then, a comparative study was carried out between the powder and the liquid formulation to compare the GHRL stability over time during storage at different temperatures (4°C and 25°C) but also their ability to fix mucins. In both cases, the dry powder showed better results The powder was also re-dispersed in aqueous phase to evaluate the ability of the liposomes to be reconstituted without modifying their physicochemical properties (e.g. size distribution, charges, stability). It was demonstrated that the majority of the initial properties could be preserved after reconstitution (i.e. rate of encapsulation). Similarly to the liquid formulation, the powder was loaded into a specific device developed for the nasal administration of powders that allows targeting the olfactory region to optimize the nose-to-brain transfer. The device, "UDS - Unit Dose System " from Aptar Pharma, has shown excellent properties in terms of particle size distribution in the aerosol but also in terms of targeting the olfactory zone. The latest was studied by means of "nasal cast" that is a 3-printed model of artificial nasal cavities. After impaction in the different cavities of the cast, it was possible to quantify the amount of GHRL that was deposited in the olfactory zone. Using our optimized formulation in combination with the device developed by Aptar, it was shown that 52% of the powder was impacted onto the area corresponding to the olfactory region. Such data demonstrated the relative difficulty to target this section of the nasal cavities.Finally, the formulation loaded with fluorescent GHRL was intranasally administered in mice. It was demonstrated that GHRL could reach the brain after intranasal administration of the formulation and that the formulation was essential to allow this transfer to the brain.The administration of such biopharmaceutical by nose-to-brain with this formulation seems to be an interesting alternative to exploit. However, additional studies to quantify this transfer more precisely, to better define its kinetics and also to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment should be carried out.