par Scaillon, Michèle
Référence Revue médicale de Bruxelles, 27 Spec No, page (Sp61-67)
Publication Publié, 2006
Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : The enteric nervous system exercises a key role on the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) motility, sensibility, secretions and absorption. This "Little brain of the gut" consists of numerous autonomic neurones located in the GIT, influenced by luminal and intrinsic factors. A new science, the neurogastroenterology, explores the modulation of the GIT functions and the interactions between the central, autonomic and enteric nervous systems forming the brain-gut axis. It works to understand the role of the glial and Cajal's cells, of chemical mediators, hazards of the GIT ontology, influence of inflammation stress and early childhood environment. Motility disorders are congenital or acquired and can persist with more or less severe impairment of quality of life or be a life threatening condition. They are consequences of impaired embryonic development, genetic disorders, systemic diseases, toxic effects, normal or pathologic immunologic reactions acting on the nervous systems or the myocytes. Advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of uncommon disorders (Hirschsprung disease, achalasia, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction) or more prevalent functional disorders (regurgitations, chronic constipation or diarrhoea, functional abdominal pain) contribute to improve the care of such patients. Multidisciplinary team is sometimes mandatory as a holistic approach and the use of sophisticated techniques are important. Improvement of the efficacy of the drugs could by obtained. For clinical works, we need a common language, for this purpose the paediatric Rome III classification of GIT functional disorders is proposed, we need also more consensus on paediatric GI motility exploration protocols.