Résumé : Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, still poses a huge global health threat today. During infection, the bacilli are believed to confront with various stresses, including hypoxia. Hypoxia is known to trigger the bacteria to adapt into a nonreplicating dormant state associated with reduced drug susceptibility. In addition to dormancy, mycobacteria, like other bacteria, may switch to sessile biofilm growth that is generally associated with augmented drug and stress tolerance. Bacterial biofilm is physically heterogeneous and may harbor cells displaying distinct metabolic activities. It is therefore likely that some cell populations within an established biofilm are in a nonreplicating dormant state. A better understanding of mycobacterial dormancy establishment and biofilm growth could unveil crucial bacillary survival strategies that will provide insights into a rational design of chemotherapy regimen.The mycobacterial chaperonin 60.1 (Cpn60.1, also known as GroEL1), a probable chaperonin and/or nucleoid associated protein, is necessary for mycobacterial cell wall virulence lipid biosynthesis, which was reported to be enhanced at the early stage of mycobacterial hypoxic adaptation, and for reduced drug susceptibility under aerobic condition. We therefore investigated whether Cpn60.1 was essential for mycobacterial adaptation to hypoxic dormancy using Mycobacterium bovis BCG as the model organism. We found that Cpn60.1, although nonessential for mycobacterial survival, reduced isoniazid (INH) susceptibility under hypoxia. Unexpectedly and interestingly, INH’s bactericidal activity was found to involve electron transport chain perturbation (e.g. enhanced oxygen consumption and increased adenosine triphosphate level) via NADH dehydrogenases, succinate dehydrogenases, cytochrome bc1 and F0F1 ATP synthase. Moreover, respiratory reprogramming to cytochrome bd was observed to protect against INH-induced killing.Intriguingly, we found that Cpn60.1 was required for respiratory and energetic downregulation under excess glycerol as well as in response to drugs (such as Q203 inhibiting cytochrome bc1). Cpn60.1 also played a role in lipidomic adaptation under excess glycerol (e.g. enhanced phthiocerol dimycocerosate and glycerol-based lipids synthesis but repressed trehalose-based lipids synthesis). Defective energetic downregulation in the absence of Cpn60.1 compromised the establishment of the Crabtree effect characterized by respiratory downregulation, glycolytic enhancement and secretion of several metabolites (i.e. pyruvate, succinate, acetate and glutamate). The Crabtree effect was necessary for mycobacterial adaptation to excess glycerol and biofilm growth. Due to a compromised Crabtree effect, a Cpn60.1-deficient Mycobacterium bovis BCG strain, i.e. the Δcpn60.1 strain, suffered from methylglyoxal-induced growth stasis under excess glycerol, leading to the biofilm defect under the standard biofilm medium. Given the essentiality for Cpn60.1 in mycobacterial respiratory adaptation under stresses, it is likely that the enhanced INH susceptibility of the Δcpn60.1 strain under hypoxia was due to a problematic respiratory reprogramming.In summary, Mycobacterium bovis BCG Cpn60.1 is not required for bacillary survival under hypoxic dormancy. However, it participates in various adaptations (e.g. respiratory downregulation) necessary for mycobacterial biofilm growth and for escaping INH’s bactericidal mechanism.