Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : Nasal delivery offers many benefits over other conventional routes of delivery (e.g. oral or intravenous administration). Benefits include, among others, a fast onset of action, non-invasiveness and direct access to the central nervous system. The nasal cavity is not only limited to local application (e.g. rhinosinusitis) but can also provide direct access to other sites in the body (e.g. the central nervous system or systemic circulation). However, both the anatomy and the physiology of the nose impose their own limitations, such as a small volume for delivery or rapid mucociliary clearance. To meet nasal-specific criteria, the formulator has to complete a plethora of tests, in vitro and ex vivo, to assess the efficacy and tolerance of a new drug-delivery system. Moreover, depending on the desired therapeutic effect, the delivery of the drug should target a specific pathway that could potentially be achieved through a modified release of this drug. Therefore, this review focuses on specific techniques that should be performed when a nasal formulation is developed. The review covers both the tests recommended by regulatory agencies (e.g. the Food and Drug Administration) and other complementary experiments frequently performed in the field.