Résumé : Hybrid trap experiments are set-ups that allow to study the interaction between ions and atoms in cold controlled environment. In such context, molecular anions present specific theoretical and experimental interests and challenges. In this work, we have used extensive \textit{ab initio} methods to investigate several collisional anionic systems: (1) M + OH$^{-}$ (where M are alkali or alkaline earth atoms), (2) Rb and H + OH(H$_{2}$O)$_{n}^{-}$ (with $n=0,1,2,3,4$) and (3) Rb and Li + C$_{2}^{-}$. Several molecular properties such as vertical detachment energies or electroaffinities, optimized structures, harmonic frequencies, potential energy curves or surfaces, etc have been calculated using high level quantum chemistry approaches. The results have been used to make predictions on the related reactivity in low energy regime. We emphasis on electronic detachment processes by carefully analysing the difference between the neutral and anionic potential energy surface. The Rb + OH$^{-}$ system is currently under experimental investigation. Therefore, a detailed study of its reactivity is carried out in the present work. We have analysed the different reactive channels arising from both collision involving the ground state and first electronic excited state of Rb. Using our calculated potentials and a capture model based dynamics, we have extracted cross sections and rate constants. Comparison with other alkali and earth alkaline atoms are made. Hydrated hydroxide cluster anions are planned by the experimental group as upcoming studied systems. We present here our preliminary results on the possible outcome when considering collisions with Rb and we discuss their implications for hybrid trap experiments. We make comparison with H as a colliding partner and consider our results in the context of astrochemistry. Finally we propose the C$_{2}^{-}$ molecular anion as an alternative to OH$^{-}$. Its interaction and reactivity with Rb and Li are investigated and the results are used to motivate our suggestion. Furthermore, for the Rb+OH$^{-}$ and Rb+C$_{2}^{-}$ system, we have also investigated the effect of a non-thermal collision energy distribution on the rate constants. At last, in light of the discussions related to each topic, general conclusions on the use of molecular anions in hybrid trap experiments are drawn.