Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : Helicobacter pylori infection is acquired mainly in childhood and remains an essential cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. This article provides commentary on the last ESPGHAN/NASPGHAN guidelines and on publications made after the consensus conference of 2015. The majority of infected children are asymptomatic and pediatric studies do not support a role for H. pylori in functional disorders such as recurrent abdominal pain. The role of H. pylori infection in failure to thrive, children's growth, type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and celiac disease remains controversial. The diagnosis of infection should be based on upper-digestive endoscopy with biopsy-based methods. Eradication control after treatment should be based on validated non-invasive tests. Nodular gastritis is the main endoscopic finding of childhood H. pylori infection, but gastroduodenal erosions/ulcers are seen in some children, especially after 10 years of age. When indicated, eradication treatment should be given when good compliance is expected and based on the antimicrobial susceptibility profile.