Résumé : Targeting immune checkpoint molecules has become a major new strategy in the treatment of several cancers. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)-inhibitors are a potential next-generation immunotherapy, currently investigated in multiple phase I-III trials. IDO is an intracellular immunosuppressive enzyme and its expression/ activity has been associated with worse prognosis in several cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression pattern of IDO in colorectal cancer (CRC). In a cohort of 94 CRC patients, primary tumors (PTs) with corresponding tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLNs, n = 93) and extranodal/distant metastases (n = 27) were retrospectively analyzed by immunohistochemical staining for IDO, CD8 and Foxp3. 45 MSS and 37 MSI-H tumors were selected to compare IDO expression, as these tumors are considered to have different immunogenicity. A highly consistent expression pattern of IDO was observed in the PT, TDLNs and metastases, indicating that immune resistance may be determined very early in the disease course. IDO was expressed both by tumoral cells and host endothelial cells and these expressions were highly correlated (p < 0.001). IDO expression was observed more frequently in the MSI-H subset compared with the MSS subset (43% vs 22% for tumoral expression (p = 0.042) and 38% vs 16% for endothelial expression (p = 0.021)). Endothelial IDO expression was demonstrated to be a negative prognostic marker for recurrence free survival independent of disease stage and DNA mismatch repair (MMR) status (HR 20.67, 95% CI: 3.05-139.94; p = 0.002). These findings indicate that endothelial IDO expression in primary CRC, in addition to the MMR profile, may be helpful in disease stratification.