Résumé : SHIP2 is a phosphatase that belongs to the family of the phosphoinositide 5-phosphatases. It is known to dephosphorylate PI(3,4,5)P3 to PI(3,4)P2 imparting a tight control of the PI 3-kinase pathway. Over the last decade, SHIP2 has been described as a tumor promotor or tumor suppressor in several cancer types such as glioblastoma, colorectal cancer or breast cancer cells. Several studies have proposed a role of SHIP2 in breast cancer cells, but its tumor promoting function was unclear at the beginning of this thesis especially in terms of its mode of regulation. In 2013, the INPPL1 gene that encodes SHIP2 has been found to be mutated in opsismodysplasia (OPS), a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by delayed bone maturation but no molecular mechanism was provided to explain the mechanism. In this thesis, we first contributed to establish a negative regulation of SHIP2 on cell migration in 1321 N1 glioblastoma (GBM) cells. Our studies revealed a dephosphorylation activity of SHIP2 on PI(4,5)P2 at the plasma membrane to control cell migration. This study was done in collaboration with Dr. Elong Edimo in the lab. We have also shown that the regulation of cell motility cannot be generalized to all the GBM cells. In LN229 and U-251 GBM cells we observed a positive regulation of cell migration by SHIP2. We next took advantage of a unique model comparing fibroblasts derived from non-affected and OPS patients (in collaboration with Dr. Valérie Cormier-Daire). We have shown that the fibroblasts from the OPS patients are SHIP2 deficient and migrate slower as compared to fibroblasts from non-affected individuals. Finally, the major part of the thesis was the study of breast cancer cells: in the model MDA-MB-231 cells, we established a positive regulation of SHIP2 on cell migration. We extended this regulation on cell migration to different breast cancer cell models using a SHIP2 inhibitor AS1949490. We confirmed that this inhibitor blocks the phosphatase activity of SHIP2 and showed its selectivity towards SHIP2 in cell migration assay. In MDA-MB-231 cells we deciphered a second messenger role of PI(3,4)P2 to control cell migration. Our data in this model rely on the use of SHIP2 depleted cells obtained by lentiviral infection and shRNA. We confirmed the positive role of SHIP2 on cell migration in the model of rat chondrosarcoma SHIP2CRISPR cells (in collaboration with Dr. Pavel Krejci).A major goal of this thesis was achieved thanks to in-vivo studies: using MDA-MB-231 cells injected in SCID mice, we found a tumor promoting role of SHIP2 by determining the tumor weight. We also observed less lung metastasis of SHIP2 depleted injected cells as compared to control cells suggesting SHIP2 to be important for invasiveness of triple negative breast cancers.