Résumé : Although High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) are being associated to increase cardiovascular and metabolic adaptation, there is controversy and limited information about the effects of HIIT on hippocampal oxidative stress, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines balance and neurotrophic status. Thus, this study evaluated the effects of six weeks of HIIT on hippocampal redox state (oxidative damage and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses), neuroimmune mediators (TNFα IL-6, IL-1β and IL-10) and brain-derived neurotrophic (BDNF) levels. After six weeks of HIIT young adults male Wistar rats presented reduced oxidative damage and increased enzymatic (superoxide dismutase) and non-enzymatic activity in hippocampus. Moreover HIIT induced a decrease in cytokine content (TNFα IL-6, IL-1β and IL-10) and enhanced hippocampal BDNF levels. In conclusion, the present study showed for the first time a positive effect of six weeks of HIIT on reducing hippocampal oxidative stress by decreasing lipoperoxidation and inflammatory markers, as well enhancing antioxidant defenses and BDNF content.