Résumé : Objective. To determine the prevalence of anemia and associated factors (malaria and intestinal helminthiasis) in high risk groups of Lubumbashi, Congo, particularly in pregnant and breast-feeding women and children aged 1-2 years. Material and Methods. From March to May 2002, 632 pregnant women, 570 breast-feeding women, and 570 infants (1-2 years) were examined in three medical centers in Lubumbashi, Congo. Some of the subjects lived in deprived semi-urban areas (Bongonga and Sendwe), others in urban areas with a satisfactory socio-economic situation (University Clinic). Results. Overall frequency of anemia was estimated between 50 and 80% in the study populations. The proportion of anemic cases was clearly higher in the Sendwe and Bongonga populations (70-80%) than in the other urban populations (50%) (P<0.01). For the three categories of examined subjects, anemia was found to be most prevalent among pregnant women (P<0.05). Anemia was found to be associated with malaria in 40% of the patients and with intestinal parasitism (ascaris / ankylostoma) in 9%. Conclusion. Considering these results, systematic screening and treatment of anemia and associated factors such as malaria and intestinal helminthiasis is needed for the Lubumbashi population.