Résumé : Cytokine-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is one of the molecular mechanisms underlying pancreatic β-cell demise in type 1 diabetes. Thrombospondin 1 (THBS1) was recently shown to promote β-cell survival during lipotoxic stress. Here we show that ER-localized THBS1 is cytoprotective to rat, mouse, andhumanβ-cells exposed to cytokines or thapsigargininduced ER stress. THBS1 confers cytoprotection by maintaining expression of mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neutrotrophic factor (MANF) in β-cells and thereby prevents the BH3-only protein BIM (BCL2-interacting mediator of cell death)-dependent triggering of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Prolonged exposure ofβ-cells to cytokines or thapsigargin leads to THBS1 and MANF degradation and loss of this prosurvival mechanism. Approaches that sustain intracellular THBS1 and MANF expression in β-cells should be explored as a cytoprotective strategy in type 1 diabetes.