Résumé : The present study describes the nuclear organization of the cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems in the brains of the springhare and Beecroft's scaly-tailed squirrel following immunohistochemical labelling. We aimed to investigate any differences in the nuclear organization of these neural systems when compared to previous data on other species of rodents, as these two rodent species have relatively large brains − 1.2 to 1.4 times larger than would be expected for mammals of their body mass and 1.7–1.9 times larger than would be expected for rodents of their body mass. A series of coronal sections were taken through two brains of each species and immunohistochemically labelled with antibodies against choline acetyltransferase, tyrosine hydroxylase, serotonin and orexin-A. Generally, the nuclear complement of these systems revealed extensive similarities between both species and to previously studied rodents. While no differences were observed in the nuclear complement of the serotonergic and orexinergic systems, some differences were observed in the nuclear complement of the cholinergic and catecholaminergic systems. These include the presence of cholinergic neurons in the cerebral cortex and nucleus of the trapezoid body in the springhare; while the Beecroft's scaly-tailed squirrel exhibited cholinergic neurons in the pretectal area of the midbrain. For the catecholaminergic system it was observed that Beecroft's scaly-tailed squirrel possessed immunoreactive neurons in the accessory olfactory bulb. Despite these four differences, most not previously observed in rodents, the remaining complement of cholinergic and catecholaminergic nuclei were identical to that observed in other rodents, including the presence of the rodent specific catecholaminergic rostral dorsal midline medullary (C3) nucleus in the medulla oblongata. Thus, even with a significant increase in relative brain size, the overall complement of nuclei forming these systems shows minimal changes in complexity within a specific mammalian order.