par Joris, Chloe ;Kourani, Ehsan ;Vermeulen, Françoise
Référence Revue médicale de Bruxelles, 37, 4, page (331-337)
Publication Publié, 2016-09
Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae are the most common atypical pathogens seen in respiratory infections in children. Currently, the management of atypical pneumonia due to these pathogens is blurry. The clinical features are hardly specific ; it appears that M. pneumoniae respiratory infect ions are associated with chest pain and the absence of wheezing, however, further confirmations are needed. Hoarseness is frequently seen with C. pneumoniae infection. Co-infections with viruses, bacteria or even between M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae can be frequent. Infection with either of these bacteria seems to increase the incidence of asthma. PCR appears to be the most sensitive and specific for rapid diagnosis of M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae infections, however, it cannot dif ferentiate asymptomatic carriage from infection. Serodiagnosis can be helpful. This requires two serum samples taken with several weeks interval. Macrolides are the classical antibiotics used for treatment of these pathogens. In vivo efficacy of antibiotic treatment of M. pneumoniae remains unclear. Resistance to macrolides in M. pneumoniae treatment has been described. In conclusion, there is still a lack in scientific literature of high level evidences and clear consensus in the management of suspicious infection due to M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae.