Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : Despite advances in the management of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease remains a major concern. Large glycemic control intervention trials have taught us that at least ten years are needed to see the benefits of a conventional diabetes therapy on morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease. Following the controversy about rosiglitazone in 2008, the FDA required cardiovascular safety data for all new antidiabetic medications and early studies to comply with this regulation are now published. They showed first the cardiovascular neutrality of gliptins, a result not really surprising for a median follow-up of less than 3 years. However, EMPA-REG-OUTCOME and LEADER studies were very surprising. Both were performed in type 2 diabetic patients with a history of cardiovascular disease. In the f irst of these studies, empaglif lozine prescribed over the usual antidiabetic treatment reduced by 14 % (P < 0,04) the composite primary endpoint (nonfatal myocardial infarction or nonfatal stroke or cardiovascular death), and this mainly through a reduction in cardiovascular mortality by 38 % (P < 0,001). Thereafter, LEADER has similarly shown that liraglutide reduced by 13 % the same primary endpoint (P = 0,01) along with a 22 % reduction in cardiovascular mortality (P = 0,007). In both cases, the median follow-up was less than four years. In conclusion, these two studies demonstrate that powerful, although still unknown mechanisms for cardiovascular protection exist. These mechanisms are able to improve survival by a glucose independent way, in a very high risk diabetic population already heavily treated by sartans/ACE inhibitors, statins and antiplatelet agents.