Résumé : The ability to suppress responses that are inappropriate, as well as the mechanisms monitoring the accuracy of actions in order to compensate for errors, is central to human behavior. Neural alterations that prevent stopping an inaccurate response, combined with a decreased ability of error monitoring, are considered to be prominent features of alcohol abuse. Moreover, (i) alterations of these processes have been reported in heavy social drinkers (i.e. young healthy individuals who do not yet exhibit a state of alcohol dependence); and (ii) through longitudinal studies, these alterations have been shown to underlie subsequent disinhibition that may lead to future alcohol use disorders. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study, using a contextual Go/No-Go task, we investigated whether different neural networks subtended correct inhibitions and monitoring mechanisms of failed inhibitory trials in light versus heavy social drinkers. We show that, although successful inhibition did not lead to significant changes, neural networks involved in error monitoring are different in light versus heavy drinkers. Thus, while light drinkers exhibited activations in their right inferior frontal, right middle cingulate and left superior temporal areas; heavy drinkers exhibited activations in their right cerebellum, left caudate nucleus, left superior occipital region, and left amygdala. These data are functionally interpreted as reflecting a "visually-driven emotional strategy" vs. an "executive-based" neural response to errors in heavy and light drinkers, respectively. Such a difference is interpreted as a key-factor that may subtend the transition from a controlled social heavy consumption to a state of clinical alcohol dependence.