Résumé : Background: Early adiponectin and leptin in children correlate with those measured at a later age. Prenatal and early life factors may influence the pattern of leptin and adiponectin longitudinal changes. We aimed to identify subgroups of children with distinct trajectories of leptin and adiponectin over the first eight years of life, and to explore determinants predisposing an individual to be included in a specific trajectory class. Methods: The analysis was based on data obtained from the EU Childhood Obesity Project (CHOP) cohort. The current study involved 459 children with adiponectin and leptin measured at 6 months, 5 and 8 years of age. Results: Three groups of leptin trajectories were identified: low-decreasing, medium-stable, and high-increasing, and two trajectory groups for adiponectin: lower and higher. The risk to be classified in the high-increasing group was higher than in the low-decreasing group for female gender (OR 10.67; 95% CI 4.94-23.05; p < 0.001); formula feeding (OR 3.34; 95% CI 1.11-10.09; p < 0.05); maternal overweight (OR 4.43; 95% CI 2.20-8.94; p < 0.001); and smoking in pregnancy (OR 4.14; 95% CI 2.07-8.29; p < 0.001). No predictors for being in the higher vs. lower adiponectin group were discovered. Conclusions: Mothers' smoking during pregnancy, maternal overweight, and formula feeding distinguished different courses of leptin trajectories; but the effect may be associated with changes in adiposity.