Résumé : Nanoparticles containing high-Z elements are known to boost the efficacy of radiation therapy. Gadolinium (Gd) is particularly attractive because this element is also a positive contrast agent for MRI, which allows for the simultaneous use of imaging to guide the irradiation and to delineate the tumor. In this study, we used the Gd-based nanoparticles, AGuIX®. After intravenous injection into animals bearing B16F10 tumors, some nanoparticles remained inside the tumor cells for more than 24 hours, indicating that a single administration of nanoparticles might be sufficient for several irradiations. Combining AGuIX® with radiation therapy increases tumor cell death, and improves the life spans of animals bearing multiple brain melanoma metastases. These results provide preclinical proof-of-concept for a phase I clinical trial.