Résumé : Surgical resection followed by chemotherapy is the actual standard of care for localized, deemed resectable, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Despite a better selection of surgical candidates and the actual performance of expert teams, the proportion of patients with a prolonged survival has not been ameliorated during the last three decades. The morphological determinants of resectability are the subject of limitations. In the future, only a better understanding of the biological process, an earlier diagnosis of purely localized disease and more efficient systemic therapies may lead to a better prognosis. Meanwhile, taking into account the prognostic factors associated with a lower chance of cure is currently a matter of debate. The optimal therapeutic sequence, being a surgery-first or a neoadjuvant approach is controversial. The theoretical advantages of preoperative chemotherapy eventually associated with chemo-radiation are demonstrated in other tumours and applicable to pancreatic cancer without any excess of operative mortality, early progression rates and, on the contrary with positive survival data. The completion rates of multi-modal therapy are in favour of the preoperative approach, which also gives the opportunity to select the best candidates for surgical resection.