Résumé : Histopathology is key to the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. This analysis requires tissue sampling from primary and/or metastatic lesions. The choice of sampling technique is intended to optimize diagnostic yield while avoiding unnecessarily invasive procedures. Recent developments in targeted therapy require increasingly precise histological and molecular characterization of the tumor. Therefore, pathologists must be economical with tissue samples to ensure that they have the opportunity to perform all the analyses required. More than ever, good communication between clinician, endoscopist or surgeon, and pathologist is essential. This is necessary to ensure that all participants in the process of lung cancer diagnosis collaborate to ensure that the appropriate number and type of biopsies are performed with the appropriate tissue sampling treatment. This will allow performance of all the necessary analyses leading to a more precise characterization of the tumor, and thus the optimal treatment for patients with lung cancer.