Résumé : We have studied gas flow and particle deposition in a realistic three-dimensional model of the bronchial tree, extending from the trachea to the segmental bronchi (7th airway generation for the most distal ones) using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The model is based on the morphometrical data of Horsfield et al. [J. Appl. Physiol., 31: 207-217, 1971] and on bronchoscopic and CT images, which give the spatial 3D-orientation of the curved ducts. It incorporates realistic angles of successive branching planes. Steady inspiratory flow varying between 50cm³/s and 500cm³/s was simulated as well as deposition of spherical aerosol particles (1 to 7 m diameter, 1g/cm³ density). Flow simulations indicated non-fully developed flows in the branches because of their relative short lengths. Velocity flow profiles in the segmental bronchi, taken one diameter downstream the bifurcation, were distorted compared with the flow in a simple curved tube, and wide patterns of secondary flow fields were observed. Both were due to the asymmetrical 3D configuration of the bifurcating network. Viscous pressure drop in the model was compared with results obtained by Pedley et al. [Respir Physiol, 9: 387-405, 1970], which are shown to be a good first approximation. Particle deposition increased with particle size and was minimal for approximately 200cm³/s inspiratory flow but it was highly heterogeneous for branches of the same generation.