Résumé : Arrow and Raynaud introduced a set of axioms that a ranking rule should verify. Among these, axiom V' states that the compromise ranking should be a so-called prudent order. Intuitively, a prudent order is a linear order such that the strongest opposition against this solution is minimal. Since the related literature lacks in solid theoretical foundations for this type of aggregation rule, it was our main objective in this thesis to thoroughly study and gain a better understanding of the family of prudent ranking rules. We provide characterizations of several prudent ranking rules in a conjoint axiomatic framework. We also prove that we can construct profiles for which the result of a prudent ranking rule and a non-prudent ranking rule can be contradictory. Finally we illustrate the use of prudent ranking rules in a group decision context and on the composite indicator problem.