|Résumé :||In this thesis, the symmetry structure of gravitational theories at null infinity is studied further, in the case of pure gravity in four dimensions and also in the case of Einstein-Yang-Mills theory in d dimensions with and without a cosmological constant.
The first part of this thesis is devoted to the presentation of asymptotic methods (symmetries, solution space and surface charges) applied to gravity in the case of the BMS gauge in three and four spacetime dimensions.
The second part of this thesis contains the original contributions.
Firstly, it is shown that the enhancement from Lorentz to Virasoro algebra also occurs for asymptotically flat spacetimes defined in the sense of Newman-Unti. As a first application, the transformation laws of the Newman-Penrose coefficients characterizing solution space of the Newman-Unti approach are worked out, focusing on the inhomogeneous terms that contain the information about central extensions of the theory. These transformations laws make the conformal structure particularly transparent, and constitute the main original result of the thesis.
Secondly, asymptotic symmetries of the Einstein-Yang-Mills system with or without cosmological constant are explicitly worked out in a unified manner in $d$ dimensions. In agreement with a recent conjecture, a Virasoro-Kac-Moody type algebra is found not only in three dimensions but also in the four dimensional asymptotically flat case.
These two parts of the thesis are supplemented by appendices.