Résumé : The prevention of relapse is a main challenge to face with in alcohol dependence. Two major cognitive factors can partially account for alcoholics' inability to remain abstinent: attentional biases directed towards alcohol-related stimuli that increase the urge to drink, and impaired response inhibition towards these cues that makes it more difficult for alcoholics to resist temptation. A recent study of ours investigated response inhibition in alcohol dependent patients, by means of an event-related potentials (ERP) modified Go/No-Go paradigm, right after a three weeks detoxification cure. Main results of the study are: (1) among 27 recently detoxified patients, 13 relapsed after a three month follow-up period; (2) at a behavioural level, patients displayed more commission errors than healthy matched controls; however, behavioural data did not allow to discriminate between future relapsers and non-relapsers; and (3) the only parameter discriminating relapsers and non-relapsers was the No-Go P300 component: future relapsers displayed increased amplitudes, suggesting that patients who involve more neural resources to perform inhibition will be those of higher risk to relapse. These preliminary data suggest a great clinical potential of the ERP technique in preventing relapse in alcohol dependent patients, as using cognitive ERP may orient an individual patient to an adapted cognitive rehabilitation program.