Résumé : Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are increasingly recognised as promoters of tumour progression. It is poorly investigated whether cancer management protocols, such as neoadjuvant radio(chemo)therapy, have an impact on CAFs and, by consequence, on tumour progression. This prompted us to study the impact of neoadjuvant radio(chemo)therapy on the α-SMA/epithelial area ratio in rectal cancer, and the impact of this ratio on recurrence-free survival.