Résumé : The effects of restraint stress and opiates on prolactin secretion in male rats have been measured. Both induced a short-lived increase in prolactinaemia. Experimental evidence indicates that both opioids and restraint stress bring about their actions by the activation of opioid receptors. When restraint stress was followed by administration of the specific κ-agonist bremazocine, a second prolactin peak was observed. In contrast, morphine (predominantly a μ-agonist) lost its prolactin-stimulating capacity when given after a period of restraint stress. This indicates cross-tolerance between restraint stress and morphine. Tolerance was overcome when the dose of morphine was doubled, and an increase in prolactin secretion could again be obtained. The cross-tolerance phenomenon argues that a common opioid receptor is involved in morphine- and restraint stress-stimulated prolactin release. In another set of experiments, in which morphine administration replaced restraint stress as a means of inducing tolerance, a second rise in prolactinaemia was seen only with bremazocine and not with a further administration of morphine. This suggests a morphine (μ) receptor-specific development of tolerance. Two consecutive administrations of bremazocine also produced tolerance, in this case for the κ-receptor. This illustrates the rapid and receptor-specific development of tolerance for the prolactin-releasing capacity of opioid compounds.